6 edition of The Dictionary of Cell Biology found in the catalog.
May 1995 by Academic Pr .
Written in English
|Contributions||J. A. T. Dow (Editor)|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||380|
They digest excess or worn-out organellesfood particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. Cytoskeleton Main article: Cytoskeleton Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial cell: nuclei stained blue, mitochondria stained red, and F-actinan important component in microfilaments, stained green. Mitochondria play a critical role in generating energy in the eukaryotic cell. In contrast, the phospholipid heads may interact with water.
The modern tendency toward cross-disciplinary research and the unification of scientific knowledge and investigation from different fields has resulted in significant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. The carboxyl and phosphate groups are the primary acidic groups in biological molecules. Sequencing of a cDNA permits the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein to be deduced; expression of cDNAs in recombinant cells can be used to produce large quantities of their encoded proteins in vitro. Figure antibody A protein that interacts with a particular site epitope on an antigen and facilitates clearance of that antigen by various mechanisms. Filtration is the movement of water and solute molecules across the cell membrane driven by hydrostatic pressure that is generated by the cardiovascular system. Where do biology graduates work?
Figure checkpoint Any of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which progression of a cell to the next stage can be halted until conditions are suitable. Respiration occurs in the cell mitochondria. Various Cdk-cyclin complexes trigger progression through different stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle by phosphorylating specific target proteins. Some such as the nucleus and golgi apparatus are typically solitary, while others such as mitochondriaperoxisomes and lysosomes can be numerous hundreds to thousands.
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See also intron. Their definition stated that that all living creatures, both simple and complex, are made out of one or more cells, and the cell is the structural and functional unit of life — a concept that became known as cell theory.
Interphase - the stage in the cell cycle where a cell doubles in size and synthesizes DNA in preparation for cell division. In contrast, bacterial cells do not contain organelles.
For example, lysosome s and vacuole s are not considered by some references as organelles but cytoplasmic structures based on the account above. Figure aerobic Referring to a cell, organism, or metabolic process that utilizes O2 or that can grow in the presence of O2.
The two layers of phospholipids are arranged in a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting to the interior whereas their hydrophilic heads are projecting the exterior. Certain viruses also insert their genetic material into the genome. Thus, while it is custom to separate the study of plants botany from that of animals zoologyand the study of the structure of organisms morphology from that of function physiologyall living things share in common certain biological phenomena—for example, various means of reproductioncell divisionand the transmission of genetic material.
There are several main subfields within cell biology. This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of lipids hydrophobic fat-like molecules and hydrophilic phosphorus molecules.
Its other main functions include cell adhesionion channel conductance, cell signaling, and attachment point for cytoskeleton which is important in keeping the shape of the cell. The nucleus is spherical and separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.
Figure chimera An animal or tissue composed of elements derived from genetically distinct individuals; also a protein molecule containing segments derived from different proteins. Plant Cells - eukaryotic cells that contain various membrane-bound organelles. Figure central nervous system CNS The part of the vertebrate nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord; the main information-processing organ.
Cell lines can result from chemical or viral transformation and are said to be immortal. A glycoprotein pertains to any protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate unit through the process of glycosylation.
Gene Theory - one of the five basic principles of biology, stating that traits are inherited through gene transmission. Sex-as-syngamy fusion sex arose when infected hosts began swapping nuclearized genomes containing co-evolved, vertically transmitted symbionts that conveyed protection against horizontal infection by more virulent symbionts.
Cutting across many biological disciplines is the additional subfield of cell biology, concerned with cell communication and signaling, concentrating on the messages that cells give to and receive from other cells and themselves.
Once inside the cell, glucose is broken down to make adenosine triphosphate ATPa form of energy, through two different pathways. Figure cell division Separation of a cell into two daughter cells.
Figure euchromatin Less condensed portions of chromatinincluding most transcribed regions, present in interphase chromosomes. Composition The major constituents of the cell membrane are: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. In eukaryotic cells, cellular organelles are the little organs inside the cell.
There are also other kinds of biomolecules in cells. This is done at both microscopic and molecular levels. Thus, exocytosis seems the opposite process of endocytosis. What are sister chromatids? Figure electrophoretogram An autoradiogram of a gel in which molecules have been separated by gel electrophoresis.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann were the ones who first formulated the Cell theoryin Furthermore, since the action of any organism is determined by the manner in which its cells interact and since all cells interact in much the same way, the basic functioning of all organisms is also similar.
The liquid component of the cytoplasm surrounding the organelles and other insoluble cytoplasmic structures in an intact cell where a wide variety of cell processes take place is called cytosol.Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Cell Membrane Definition. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a double layer of lipids and proteins that surrounds a cell and separates the cytoplasm (the contents of the cell) from its surrounding environment.
It is selectively permeable, which means that it only lets certain molecules enter and exit.
It can also control the amount of some substances that go into or out. Cell biology is the study of cells—the fundamental units of structure and function in living organisms. Cells were first observed in the 17th century, when the compound microscope was invented.
Before that time, the individual organism was studied as a whole in a field known as organismic biology; that area of research remains an important component of the biological sciences.
Dec 31, · The Dictionary of Cell and Molecular Biology, Fifth Edition, provides definitions for thousands of terms used in the study of cell and molecular biology. The headword count has been expanded to 12, from 10, in the Fourth Edition.
Over 4, headwords have been rewritten. Some headwords have second, third, and even sixth definitions, while fewer than half are unchanged.1/5(1). The Encyclopedia of Cell Biology offers a broad overview of cell biology, offering reputable, foundational content for researchers and students across the biological and medical sciences.
This important work includes articles from domain experts covering every aspect of cell biology, with fully annotated figures, abundant illustrations.
Biology definition is - a branch of knowledge that deals with living organisms and vital processes. How to use biology in a sentence.